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North Macedonia, officially the Republic of North Macedonia, is a country in the.
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Remarkable evidence for cult activity has been found at Promachonas -Topolnica, which straddles the Greek Bulgarian border to the north of Serres. Here a deep pit appeared to have been roofed to make a subterranean room; in it were successive layers of debris including large numbers of figurines, bulls' skulls, and pottery, including several rare and unusual shapes.

The farming economy of this period continued the practices established at the beginning of the Neolithic, although sheep and goats were less dominant among the animals than they had previously been, and the cultivation of vines Vitis vinifera is well attested. Only a few burials have been discovered from the whole of the Neolithic period in northern Greece and no clear pattern can be deduced.

Grave offerings, however, seem to have been very limited. In classical times, the region of Macedonia comprised parts of what at the time was known as Macedonia, Illyria and Thrace. Among others, in its lands were located the kingdoms of Paeonia, Dardania, Macedonia and Pelagonia, historical tribes like the Agrianes, and colonies of southern Greek city states.

Prior to the Macedonian ascendancy, parts of southern Macedonia were populated by the Bryges , [24] while western, i.


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Whilst numerous wars are later recorded between the Illyrian and Macedonian Kingdoms, the Bryges might have co-existed peacefully with the Macedonians. Alexander's conquests produced a lasting extension of Hellenistic culture and thought across the ancient Near East , but his empire broke up on his death. His generals divided the empire between them, founding their own states and dynasties. The kingdom of Macedon was taken by Cassander , who ruled it until his death in BC. At the time, Macedonian control over the Thracoillyrian states of the region slowly waned, although the kingdom of Macedonia remained the most potent regional power.

This period also saw several Celtic invasions into Macedonia.

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However, the Celts were each time successfully repelled by Cassander, and later Antigonus, leaving little overall influence on the region. Macedonian sovereignty in the region was brought to an end at the hands of the rising power of Rome in the 2nd century BC. Philip V of Macedon took his kingdom to war against the Romans in two wars during his reign BC. Although he survived war with Rome, his successor Perseus of Macedon reigned BC did not; having taken Macedon into the Third Macedonian War in BC , he lost his kingdom when he was defeated. Macedonia was initially divided into four republics subject to Rome before finally being annexed in BC as a Roman province.

Around this time, vulgar Latin was introduced in the Balkans by Latin-speaking colonists and military personnel. The population of the entire region was, however, depleted by destructive invasions of various Gothic and Hun tribes c. Despite this, other parts of the Byzantine empire continued to flourish, in particular some coastal cities such as Thessaloniki became important trade and cultural centres.


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  • Despite the empire's power, from the beginning of the 6th century the Byzantine dominions were subject to frequent raids by various Slavic tribes which, in the course of centuries, eventually resulted in drastic demographic and cultural changes in the Empire's Balkan provinces. Although traditional scholarship attributes these changes to large-scale colonizations by Slavic-speaking groups, it has been proposed that a generalized dissipation of Roman identity might have commenced in the 3rd century, especially among rural provincials who were crippled by harsh taxation and famines.

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    Given this background, penetrations carried by successive waves of relatively small numbers of Slavic warriors and their families might have been capable of assimilating large numbers of indigenes into their cultural model, which was sometimes seen as a more attractive alternative. In this way and in the course of time, great parts of Macedonia came to be controlled by Slavic-speaking communities. Despite numerous attacks on Thessaloniki, the city held out, and Byzantine-Roman culture continued to flourish, although Slavic cultural influence steadily increased.

    The Slavic settlements organized themselves along tribal and territorially based lines which were referred to by Byzantine Greek historians as "Sklaviniai". The Sklaviniai continued to intermittently assault the Byzantine Empire, either independently, or aided by Bulgar or Avar contingents. Around AD a "Bulgar" group which was largely composed of the descendants of former Roman Christians taken captive by the Avars , led by Khan Kuber theorized to have belonged to the same clan as the Danubian Bulgarian khan Asparukh , settled in the Pelagonian plain , and launched campaigns to the region of Thessaloniki.

    When the Empire could spare imperial troops, it attempted to regain control of its lost Balkan territories.

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    By the time of Constans II a significant number of the Slavs of Macedonia were captured and transferred to central Asia Minor where they were forced to recognize the authority of the Byzantine emperor and serve in his ranks. In the late 7th century, Justinian II again organized a massive expedition against the Sklaviniai and Bulgars of Macedonia. Launching from Constantinople, he subdued many Slavic tribes and established the Theme of Thrace in the hinterland of the Great City, and pushed on into Thessaloniki.

    However, on his return he was ambushed by the Slavo-Bulgars of Kuber, losing a great part of his army, booty, and subsequently his throne. The emperors rather resorted to withdrawing their defensive line south along the Aegean coast, until the late 8th century. Although a new theme—that of "Macedonia"—was subsequently created, it did not correspond to today's geographic territory, but one farther east centred on Adrianople , carved out of the already existing Thracian and Helladic themes. Slavic influence in the region strengthened along with the rise of this state, which incorporated parts of the region to its domain in In the early s Saints Cyril and Methodius , two Byzantine Greek brothers from Thessaloniki, created the first Slavic Glagolitic alphabet in which the Old Church Slavonic language was first transcribed, and are thus commonly referred to as the apostles of the Slavic world.

    Their cultural heritage was acquired and developed in medieval Bulgaria, where after the region of Ohrid present-day Republic of North Macedonia became a significant ecclesiastical center with the nomination of the Saint Clement of Ohrid for "first archbishop in Bulgarian language" with residence in this region. In conjunction with another disciple of Saints Cyril and Methodius, Saint Naum , Clement created a flourishing Slavic cultural center around Ohrid, where pupils were taught theology in the Old Church Slavonic language and the Glagolitic and Cyrillic script at what is now called Ohrid Literary School.

    According to the Byzantine author John Kaminiates , at that time the neighbouring settlements around Thessaloniki were inhabited by "Scythians" Bulgarians and the Slavic tribes of Drugubites and Sagudates , in addition to Greeks. At the end of the 10th century, what is now the Republic of North Macedonia became the political and cultural heartland of the First Bulgarian Empire , after Byzantine emperors John I Tzimiskes conquered the eastern part of the Bulgarian state during the Rus'—Byzantine War of — A new capital was established at Ohrid, which also became the seat of the Bulgarian Patriarchate.

    A new dynasty, that of the Comitopuli under Tsar Samuil and his successors, continued resistance against the Byzantines for several more decades, before also succumbing in The western part of Bulgaria including Macedonia was incorporated into the Byzantine Empire as the province of Bulgaria Theme of Bulgaria and the Bulgarian Patriarchate was reduced in rank to an Archbishopric. Intermittent Slavic uprisings continued to occur, often with the support of the Serbian princedoms to the north.

    Any temporary independence that might have been gained was usually crushed swiftly by the Byzantines. It was also marked by periods of war between the Normans and Byzantium. The Normans launched offensives from their lands acquired in southern Italy, and temporarily gained rule over small areas in the northwestern coast.

    In the 13th century, following the Fourth Crusade , Macedonia was disputed among Byzantine Greeks , Latin crusaders of the short-lived Kingdom of Thessalonica , and the revived Bulgarian state. Most of southern Macedonia was secured by the Despotate of Epirus and then by the Empire of Nicaea , while the north was ruled by Bulgaria. After however, all of Macedonia returned to Byzantine rule, where it largely remained until the Byzantine civil war of — Taking advantage of this conflict, the Serb ruler Stefan Dushan expanded his realm and founded the Serbian Empire , which included all of Macedonia, northern and central Greece — excluding Thessaloniki, Athens and the Peloponnese.

    Dushan's empire however broke up shortly after his death in Since the middle of the 14th century, the Ottoman threat was looming in the Balkans, as the Ottomans defeated the various Christian principalities, whether Serb, Bulgarian or Greek. After the Ottoman victory in the Battle of Maritsa in , most of Macedonia accepted vassalage to the Ottomans and by the end of the 14th century the Ottoman Empire gradually annexed the region. The final Ottoman capture of Thessalonica was seen as the prelude to the fall of Constantinople itself. Macedonia remained a part of the Ottoman Empire for nearly years, during which time it gained a substantial Turkish minority.

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    Thessaloniki later become the home of a large Sephardi Jewish population following the expulsions of Jews after from Spain. Over the centuries Macedonia had become a multicultural region. From the Middle Ages to the early 20th century the Slavic-speaking population in Macedonia was identified mostly as Bulgarian. During the period of Bulgarian National Revival many Bulgarians from these regions supported the struggle for creation of Bulgarian cultural educational and religious institutions, including Bulgarian Exarchate.

    Krste Misirkov , a philologist and publicist, mostly known for his work "On the Macedonian Matters" , heralded by Macedonians as one of the "founders of the Macedonian nation", stated:. Some will ask why I speak of breaking away from the Bulgarians when in the past we have even called ourselves Bulgarians and when it is generally accepted that unification creates strength, and not separation.

    And, anyway, what sort of new Macedonian nation can this be when we and our fathers and grandfathers and great-grandfathers have always been called Bulgarians?

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    After the revival of Greek, Serbian, and Bulgarian statehood in the 19th century, the Ottoman lands in Europe that became identified as "Macedonia", were contested by all three governments, leading to the creation in the s and s of rival armed groups who divided their efforts between fighting the Turks and one another. Diplomatic intervention by the European powers led to plans for an autonomous Macedonia under Ottoman rule.

    The restricted borders of the modern Greek state at its inception in disappointed the inhabitants of northern Greece Epirus and Macedonia. The Greek is not only he who inhabits the kingdom, but also he who lives in Ioannina, or Thessaloniki, or Serres, or Odrin". The important idea here is that for Greece, Macedonia was a region with large Greek populations expecting annexation to the new Greek state. At this time, the region which today is known as the Republic of North Macedonia was part of the Kosovo Vilayet. The Congress of Berlin changed the Balkan map again.

    The treaty restored Macedonia and Thrace to the Ottoman Empire. Serbia, Romania and Montenegro were granted full independence, and some territorial expansion at the expense of the Ottoman Empire. Russia would maintain military advisors in Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia until May The Congress of Berlin also forced Bulgaria, newly given autonomy by the Treaty of San Stefano , to return over half of its newly gained territory to the Ottoman Empire.

    This included Macedonia, a large part of which was given to Bulgaria, due to Russian pressure and the presence of significant numbers of Bulgarians and adherents to the Bulgarian Exarchate. The territorial losses dissatisfied Bulgaria; this fuelled the ambitions of many Bulgarian politicians for the following seventy years, who wanted to review the treaty — by peaceful or military means and to reunite all lands which they claimed had a Bulgarian majority. Besides, Serbia was now interested in the Macedonian lands, until then only Greece was Bulgaria's main contender, which after the addition of Thessaly to Greece in was bordering Macedonia.

    Thus, the Berlin Congress renewed the struggle for Turkey in Europe, including the so-called Macedonia region, rather than setting up a permanent regime. In the following years, all of the neighboring states struggled over Turkey in Europe; they were only kept at bay by their own restraints, the Ottoman Army and the territorial ambitions of the Great Powers in the region. Serbian policy had a distinct anti-Bulgarian flavor, attempting to prevent the Bulgarian influencing the inhabitants of Macedonia.

    On the other hand, Bulgaria was using the power of its religious institutions Bulgarian Exarchate established in to promote its language and make more people identify with Bulgaria.

    Greece, in addition, was in an advantageous position for protecting its interests through the influence of Patriarchate of Constantinople which traditionally sponsored Greek-language and Greek-culture schools also in villages with few Greeks. This put the Patriarchate in dispute with the Exarchate, which established schools with Bulgarian education. Indeed, belonging to one or another institution could define a person's national identity.

    Simply, if a person supported the Patriarchate they were regarded as Greek, whereas if they supported the Exarchate they were regarded as Bulgarian. Some were locally recruited and self-organized while others were sent and armed by the protecting states. The aim of the adversaries, however, was not primarily to extend their influence over Macedonia but merely to prevent Macedonia succumbing to the influence of the other.

    This often violent attempt to persuade the people that they belonged to one ethnic group or another pushed some people to reject both. The severe pressure on the peaceful peasants of Macedonia worked against the plans of the Serbians and Bulgarians to make them adopt their ethnic idea and eventually a social divide became apparent. The British Ambassador in Belgrade in said: "At present the unfortunate Macedonian peasant is between the hammer and the anvil.